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 Introduction to Cost and Management Accounting
 High/Low and Linear Regression Analysis
 Inventory Management
 Accounting for Inventory
 Accounting for overheads
 Absorption Costing
 Marginal Costing
 Job Batch and Service costing
 Process Costing
 Target Costing
 Variances
 Standard Costing
 Cost Volume Profit analysis
 Relevant costing and DecisionMaking Techniques
 Time Value of Money (TVM)
High/Low and Linear Regression Analysis Overview
The total costs associated with a business are the SUM of fixed costs and variable costs i,e. the total cost is semivariable in nature.
 Total costs can be divided into fixed costs /variable cost per unit of output.
Formula for total costs:
Y=a+bx
where:
y= total cost in a period
a= the fixed costs in the period
b= the variable cost per unit of output or unit of activity
x= the number of output or the volume of activity in the period.
Constructing Total cost function
High/Low and Linear Regression Analysis
Methods for constructing Total cost function
The total cost function can be used to estimate costs associated with different levels of activities. Its useful for forecasting and decision making.
There are two methods for constructing the total cost function equation.
 High/Low Analysis.
 Linear Regression Analysis.
High/Low and Linear Regression Analysis
High/Low analysis;
can be used to estimate fixed costs and variable costs per unit, whenever:
 figures available for total costs at two different level of output.
 it can be used that fixed costs are same and variable cost per unit is constant at both levels of activity.
 the different between the total costs at high level and low level of output is entirely variable cost.
The following circumstances are to be considered:
When No Change
Step 1: Take activity level and cost for:
 Highest level
 Lowest level
Step 2: Calculate variable cost per unit (b) as:
difference in total cost (highest minus lowest) divide by difference in no. of units (highest minus lowest).
Step 3: Now for fixed cost (a) put the variable cost per unit into one of the cost expressions (mostly high level).
Step 4: Construct total cost function for any activity level:
Total cost=a+bx
For Example:
Step 1
Highest level 7,000 (units) costs $38,800
Lowest level 4,500 (units) costs $30,400
Step 2: Difference
Therefore: variable cost per unit= 8400/2500 = $ 3.36
Step 3: Cost expressions: Total cost of 7,000 units
Fixed cost + variable cost= 38,800
Fixed cost + 7,000 x 3.36= 38,800
Fixed cost + 23,520= 38,800
Fixed cost=38,800–23,520=15,280
Step 4: Construct total cost function
Total cost=a+bx= 15,280+ 3.36x
A step change in fixed costs as money value And the amount is known
Step 1: Take activity level and cost for:
 Highest level
 Lowest level
Step 2: Make adjustment for the step in fixed cost:
 add the step in fixed cost in lower level; or
 deduct it from higher level
Now calculate variable cost per unit (b) as:
difference in total cost (highest minus lowest) divide by difference in no. of units (highest minus lowest).
Step 3: Now for fixed cost (a) put the variable cost per unit into one of the cost expressions (mostly high level).
Step 4: Construct total cost function for any activity level:
Total cost=a+bx
For Example:
Step 1
Highest level 7,000 (units) costs $ 38,800
Lowest level 4,500 (units) costs $ 30,400
Step 2: Make an adjustment for step in fixed cost. For example fixed costs increase by $3,000 when the activity level exceeds or equals 10,000 units.
Add the increase in cost in lowest activity level.
Therefore: variable cost per unit= 5400/2500 = $ 2.16
Step 3: Cost expressions: Total cost of 7,000 units
Fixed cost + variable cost= 38,800
Fixed cost + 7,000 x 2.16= 38,800
Fixed cost + 15,120= 38,800
Fixed cost=38,800–15,120=23,680
Step 4: Construct total cost function (unadjusted levels):
 Above 10,000 units
Total cost=a+bx= 23,680+ 2.16x
 Below 10,000 units
Total cost=a+bx=(23,6803,000)+2.16x
Total cost=a+bx= 20,680+2.16x
A step change in fixed costs is given as a Percentage amount
When there is a percentage change after a particular level, this means there are TWO levels which share same fixed cost.
Step 1: Take activity level and cost for (3 levels):
 Highest level
 Middle level
 Lowest level
Step 2: Choose the pair which is on the same side as the step.
Now calculate variable cost per unit (b) as:
difference in total cost divide by difference in no. of units.
Step 3: Now for fixed cost (a) put the variable cost per unit into one of the cost expressions (mostly high level).
Step 4: Construct total cost function for any activity level:
Total cost=a+bx
For Example:
Step 1
 Highest level 7,000 (units) costs $ 38,800
 Middle level 5,500 (units) costs $ 35,000
 Lowest level 4,500 (units) costs $ 30,400
Step 2: Pair with same percentage change. (assume a 10% increase in fixed costs when the activity level exceeds or equals 5,500 units)
 Highest level 7,000 (units) costs $ 38,800
 Middle level 5,500 (units) costs $ 35,000
Therefore: variable cost per unit= 3800/1500 = $ 2.53
Step 3: Cost expressions: Total cost of 7,000 units
Fixed cost + variable cost= 38,800
Fixed cost + 7,000 x 2.53= 38,800
Fixed cost + 17,710= 38,800
Fixed cost=38,800–17,710=21,090
Step 4: Construct total cost function (unadjusted levels):
 Above 5,500 units
Total cost=a+bx= 21,090+ 2.53x
 Below 5,500 units
Total cost=a+bx=(21,090 x 100/110)+2.53x
Total cost=a+bx= 19,173+2.53x
A step change in variable costs (is given as a Percentage/money amount)
 When there is a step change in variable cost per unit as money value the same approach is needed as for a step change in fixed cost. (above)
 When the change in variable cost per unit is given as a percentage amount, then variable cost(s) per unit should be calculated for TWO levels:

 variable cost per unit used above change ; and
 variable cost per unit used below change.
High/Low and Linear Regression Analysis
In summary, linear regression is a better technique then high/low analysis because;
 it is more reliable ; and
 it’s reliability can be measured.
Formula:
Line of best fit (y=a+bx) can be constructed by calculating values for “a” and “b” using:
a = ∑y – b∑x
n n
b= ∑xy – ∑x ∑y
n∑x2 – (∑x)2
where:
x = units
y = costs
Enter the values into the line of best fit (y=a+bx) and solve for b and then a .
The following table should be used for calculating values of “x” and “y”
Table
X  Y  X^{2}  XY 